FOR OUR TRIAL TASTING:
Aroma Enhancement Through Post-Fermentation Enzyme Use
This trial tasting is complimentary with attendance to the WIN EXPO Conference & Trade Show
Sonoma County Fairgrounds, Santa Rosa, CA
Thursday, December 1, 2022
Tasting Details: 10:00 - 11:00 am in Booth #718
BY INCREASING AROMAS IN WHITES, ROSÉS AND FRUITY REDS
Aroma compounds are found in grape skins and the pectin layer immediately beneath the skins. Aroma compounds are either free (odor-active) or bound (odorless). Both types are extracted into juice via skin contact and/or pressing. Enzymes can help increase extraction of both free and bound aroma compounds and can also convert bound into free. Pectinases with β-glycosidase activity are well-suited to achieving both goals and can be used at multiple stages of the winemaking process:
Pectinase Activity for Pre-Pressing
The pectinase activity of these enzymes makes them useful as pre-pressing, skin contact enzymes. They will break down the skins and pectin layer allowing aroma compounds to more readily extract during pressing.
This action is not compound-specific and will help release many types of free and bound aromas including terpenes, thiols, and isoprenoids. These compounds collectively contribute to aromas including fruity, floral, citrusy & spicy that help determine a grape’s varietal character.
β-glycosidase Activity for Post-Fermentation
Bound aroma compounds are odorless upon extraction into the juice and must be converted to the free form before they can contribute to wine aroma. Thiols are found bound to amino acids and these bonds can be cleaved by enzymes found in yeast. Terpenes and norisoprenoids, on the other hand, are found bound to sugars and these bonds can be cleaved by enzymes with β-glycosidase activity. This action is inhibited if sugar is > 50 g/L, so they work best after fermentation. Bound terpenes exist at much higher concentrations than free terpenes, so releasing them is critical to making the most of the aromatic potential of the grape.
With post-fermentation use, it is important to note that β-glycosidase activity will continue until inhibited (with a bentonite addition). These enzymes should be bench trialed or the wines should be closely monitored to determine the appropriate amount of enzyme action.
For more information on how enzymes can improve wine quality, read our article "Enzymes Can Improve Wine Color, Aroma, and Texture"